The growth of personalized medicine in oncology continues to fuel a shift from traditional chemotherapies to immunotherapy. Currently, there are more than 30 immunotherapies approved for use in the United States, with more than 2,300 immunotherapy clinical trials listed on ClinicalTrials.gov. However, significant disparities exist in randomized clinical trial participation with clinical trial populations skewing younger and healthier than real-world patient populations, with limited ethnic and gender diversity.

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